For both, we will use a Colorspace Conversion node to convert from RGB (red, green, blue) colour space to HSV (hue, saturation, value) colour space - this allows us to use the value (also called lightness) to control how far across the lighting ramp we sample. Keywords allow you to define multiple shader variants and strip away unneeded code - we won’t use any of those in this tutorial. Add another Texture2D property to the shader. Returns the result of the projection of the value of input A onto the plane orthogonal, or perpendicular, to the value of input B. Rotates the input vector In around the axis Axis by the value of Rotation. It’s down to personal preference which you pick. Returns the hyperbolic cosine of input In. Once you’ve created a graph, name it whatever you want then double-click it to open up the Shader Graph editor tab - you should see a single node called PBR Master. This is commonly referred to as n dot l, after the normal vector, n, and light direction vector, l. In practice, we would also multiply the light colour by L_{diffuse}, but we can do that at the end after applying all types of light from this source. If we connected the Dot Product’s output to the Color of Unlit Master node, we would see which part of the model is lit. Returns the parameter that produces the interpolant specified by input T within the range of input A to input B. Obviously I’ve tinted him to better show off how lighting interacts on a more complicated model, but you should see the very fine details provided by the albedo texture (which is actually an occlusion map, but works fine here as an albedo texture). We’ll wrap the node in a Sub Graph, and finally, we’ll use the Sub Graph in our main graph. The other main benefit to using Shader Graph is that certain types of node generate a preview window which show what the material looks like so far - you can use those to debug what the shader is doing more immediately than you can using code. Finally, the Name is the name of the function without the precision extension - in our case, “MainLight”. Right-click in the Project window and under Create->Shader there will be a handful of graph presets: In this tutorial, we’ll be using PBR Graph. That was simple! Returns the result of linearly interpolating between input A and input B by input T. Returns the result of a smooth Hermite interpolation between 0 and 1, if input In is between inputs Edge1 and Edge2. We can use grouping to make it clearer what large groups of nodes are doing - it’s good for organisation. For variance, random noise is added to the amplitude of the sine wave. The following group of nodes will replace every instance of Normal Vector nodes on the main graph, so you can go ahead and delete all three times we used one. For this, let’s apply the material to a more complicated model than a sphere - we’ll bring out the Ethan model that used to be included in Unity’s Standard Assets package. We’ll also need to change the Type to Normal and the Space to Tangent. The whole project is available at my public repository. We’ll also create a View Direction node with its Space set to World, pass its output to a Normalize node (which sets the vector’s length to 1), then pass that into the other Add input. Click the cog menu in the top-right corner of the node to configure the inputs and outputs - we’ll need a Vector3 in the Inputs section, followed by two Vector3s and a Vector1 for the Outputs. Once you’re done, remember to click the Save Asset button in the top-left corner to make sure the main graph updates.

We’re going to create a cel-shading effect using Shader Graph, aiming for a result that looks like the lighting used in The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild or The Wind Waker. Such effect was used for example in that small game called Brawl Stars.

This is a good start, but you can’t modify the colour without going into the graph. The higher the input to Power, the thinner the Fresnel effect is - so we’ll take the Reciprocal of Rim Strength and use that for the Power.

Noise Sine Wave

Finally, the Multiply output is connected to the master’s Emission slot. For a long time, I wanted to create a toon shader with this cool multi-step shading. For our purpose, we have to use the Unlit Shader Graph. You may notice that there is no node to get light in the Shader Graph. Returns the largest of the two inputs values A and B. To do it, we have to make a simple calculation. Returns the remainder of input A divided by input B. In our case, I made a simple 1×16 texture with a different amount of shading. The specular ramp sampling is identical, apart from the UV coordinates. Returns the cross product of the values of the inputs A and B. Returns the determinant of the matrix defined by input In. Returns the arctangent of the value of input In. The first will be a new Texture2D called Lighting Ramp - I’ve also set the default value to the lighting ramp texture so we can visualise the impact of these changes in the graph’s preview windows.

You can toggle the Blackboard on and off using the button in the top-right of the window. Programming geek with love to clean high-quality code. We’ll perform the NdotL calculation by passing the Normal Vector and the Direction from the MainLighting through a Dot Product node. If we set the Albedo colour to black and the Metallic and Smoothness values to 0, Unity will strip out some of the lighting-related code from the compiled shader code. You should pass the Direction through a Normalize pin first so that our dot product calculations are correct. After this directive, we’ll retrieve the main light and extract the output data we need from it.

We established that we need the normal and light direction vectors - it’s easy to get the first using the Normal Vector node, but unfortunately there’s no node for getting information about the lights in the scene. We can rename these properties, so I’ve chosen to call mine “Tint”.

Now we need to increase the strength of the specular light - if we added it now, we’d get a large white blob covering most of the material (including the bits that are meant to be darkened by the diffuse light) instead of a small, bright highlight. That’s why we set the minimum value to 0.001 - we don’t want to divide by zero. To incorporate specular lighting into the material so far, we just need to Add together the result of the Diffuse/Albedo multiplication with the output of the Specular Lighting group. Returns the normalized vector of input In. We need the Wrap mode to be set to Clamp so that lighting values above 1 don’t cause strange lighting effects. You’ll be familiar with Properties if you’ve written traditional shaders before. Fresnel lighting can clearly be seen on Link’s shoulder and arms, as well as his hair. Ports Properties are like inputs - these can be exposed in a material and freely tweaked outside the shader.

In the following screenshot, I’ve used a couple of sticky notes to make it a bit clearer which nodes are doing what - Shader Graph can get very cumbersome with nodes and wires hanging around everywhere! For normalized input vectors, the Dot Product node returns 1 if they point in exactly the same direction, -1 if they point in completely opposite directions and 0 if the vectors are perpendicular. float4x4 _WorldToShadowCascadeMatrices[5]; Now we have to include the (0,0,0,0) → 4 conversion, which we can do by starting with 4 and subtracting the dot product of the isolated flag with (4,3,2,1). There’s a trick we can use with PBR graphs to get the best of both worlds, courtesy of this tutorial. But that won’t be important for us. Here’s the full code listing for those who skipped to the end: Now we can add a Custom Function node to use this code.

Returns the result of input A minus input B. While it’s possible to roll your own custom renderer, there are two presets which most people will probably use - High Definition Render Pipeline (HDRP), which targets high-end consoles and PC, and Universal Render Pipeline (URP, previously known as Lightweight Render Pipeline, LWRP), which is designed to scale across a broad range of devices, including mobile platforms. If you’ve used Unity’s Standard Shader (from Unity 5 onwards), the inputs to this node will look familiar: rather than defining the output based on what colour a pixel is, we define what the albedo (base) colour is, then configure what the physical properties of the surface are: how metallic and smooth it is, how much light is emitted by portions of the object, and so on. Converting to HSV lets us use the lightness channel to sample a lighting ramp texture. Unity provides the GetMainLight function which returns a Light object, from which we can get the Direction and Color directly. For each point on an object’s surface, we can calculate the diffuse light provided by a light source by taking the dot product of the normal vector at that point with the direction vector from the point to the light source. The function is going to take in a WorldPos as input and output the Direction, Color and Attenuation of the light - but we need to define all four in the function parameters and specify which are outputs using the out keyword. Returns the value of input In converted from radians to degrees. Select Keyword->Boolean, name our new keyword Use Fresnel and tick the Default field. The easiest type of light to model is ambient light, which is a measure of indirect light on an object. Finally, Multiply by the Attenuation of the MainLighting node. Returns the fractional (or decimal) part of input In; which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1. The comment form collects your name, email and content to allow us keep track of the comments placed on the website. Returns the value of input In clamped between 0 and 1.

Square Wavve The Mode needs to be set to Bump but the rest of the values can be left to the defaults. Is that what the 20 is for? . Unsurprisingly, the Power node takes whatever is in A to the power of whatever’s in B. We’ll use the Smoothness node and Multiply it by 100 for the exponent, although we’ll also have to add a Maximum node so that it’s above zero.

On top of that, much of the boilerplate code required when writing shaders is removed - graphs tend to only include directly relevant information. Returns the partial derivative with respect to the screen-space y-coordinate. However, that also means Unlit materials don’t receive shadows by default. We’re going to inject a few nodes right after the Diffuse Lighting and Specular Lighting groups. I would really appreciate that! For the Attenuation, we will need to multiply the distanceAttenuation and shadowAttenuation properties of the Light. How big is your texture array? You may notice that there is no node to get light in the Shader Graph. We will also pass the world position into the custom node here.

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